Coin flipping is ancient. It makes difficult decisions easy by giving both sides an equal chance. The ratio is always 50:50.
This assumption is fair since all coins have two sides and have an equal chance of showing any side when flipped. The American mathematician Persi Diaconis found that coin tosses were not 50-50 in the past.
Frantisek Bartos, a PhD candidate at the University of Amsterdam investigating psychological techniques, published a pre-print on arXiv based on Persi Diaconis' article.
His results matched Diaconis'. On X (previously Twitter), he wrote: "Diaconis and colleagues' 2007'same-side' bias was confirmed: Starting heads-up increases the odds of landing heads-up and vice versa. How big is the bias? Our sample mean estimate is 50.8%, CI."
The probability concept, the "Diaconis Model," affects how people have historically viewed coin flips. Another team explained the approach to IFL Science, "The Diaconis model states that precession increases the coin's duration in the air with the beginning side up.
The coin has a larger likelihood of landing on the same side as it started ('same-side bias'). 48 people flipped 350,757 coins from 46 countries to get their outcomes, a monumental endeavor.
Like Bartos, coins had a 51% probability of landing on the same side they were hurled from. The team also found that coin tossers impacted probability.
Some favored one side, while others were unbiased. The study found that coin tosses were marginally impacted by the thrower. Though small, these statistics can predict outcomes in specific situations.